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1 SELECTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW IRONMAKING ...

Solid fuel based reduction of iron ores in a great SL/RN rotary kiln process, built in the early 1970s – During the process scale- up (3 times increase in rotary kiln diameter) the efficiency of heat and mass transfer was overestimated – As a result, the kiln throughput was limited and the process become uneconomic – The plant was closed ...

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Prospects for Coal-based Direct Reduction Process

reduction processes including SL/RN2) employ rotary kilns. Pellets, or lump-ore, mixed with coal are/is charged into the rotary kilns2) and heated by coal burners to produce DRI. To avoid the significant formation of the kiln rings, their operating temperatures must be maintained in a range from 1,000 to 1,100℃3). As a result, the processes ...

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PRESENT STATE OF THE SL / RN PROCESS AND ITS …

The paper describes the present state of development of the SL/RN Process, discussing the reasons for using solid fuels as reductants and the application of a rotary kiln as reactor. Especially critical thought is given to the problem of economy,of the direct reduction processes with regard to the prices of ore, coal and energy.

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KINETICS OF IRON ORE REDUCTION BY COAL AND …

In a direct reduction process, variety of reductant like lower grade coals, natural gas, charcoal etc can be used. The fast depletion of high grade ... Rotary kiln processes (SL/RN, Krupp-CODIR, DRC, and ACCAR/OSIL) 2) Retort processes (Kinglor Metor) 3) Rotary hearth processes (Inmetco, FASTMET) ...

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Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes – IspatGuru

Mar 16, 2013· Fig 2 Principle of direct reduction process. Gas based process. In the gas based reduction processes, a vertical shaft kiln is used in which iron ore is fed into the top of the kiln and finished sponge iron is drawn off from the bottom after cooling it so as to prevent its re-oxidation.

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Ironmaking Process - Department of Energy

3-2.1 Shaft Furnace Processes 3-2.2 Rotary Kiln 3-2.3 Rotary Hearth 3-2.4 ... Of the Alternative Direct Iron Reduction Processes, 67% of the DRI is produced by the Midrex Shaft Furnace DRI processes. The second-most production of DRI (23%) is by the HYLSA processes. The balance is split between SL/RN (3%), Finmet (2%) and Other (predominately ...

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OUTOTEC DIRECT REDUCTION AND SMELTING REDUCTION

direct reduction process, including laboratory and pilot plant programs. Our direct reduction offering covers: • Design, engineering, delivery, and services for tradi-tional SL/RN direct reduction plants based on a rotary kiln, with non-coking coal as the reductant and fuel. • Design, engineering, delivery, and services for SL/

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Rotary Kiln with SL/RN Process - electrotherment.com

Rotary Kiln with SL/RN Process. Rotary Kiln with SL/RN Process. Coal Based Rotary Kiln for Direct Reduced Iron / Sponge Iron (100 TPD, 350 TPD, and 500 TPD) Solid-state reduction of Iron Ore using either coal/gas as a medium of reduction to produce a substitute raw material for steel making is termed as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI).

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Direct Reduction Process - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Typical examples of the coal-based process include the SL/RN and ACCAR processes. The coal-based DR process is more popular in India and China. Different types of reactors, such as shaft furnaces, fluidized beds, rotary kilns, and rotary hearth furnaces, have been used in different variations of the processe to achieve the metallization required.

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Effect of Quality of Raw Materials on the Quality of ...

Amongst direct reduction processes utilizing solid reduction agents for sponge iron production, the rotary kiln process, the SL/RN process by Lurgi and the Codir process by Krupp all developed in Germany, are predominant throughout the world. In the meantime two installation have been built in Venezuela (HB and Fior Process) working

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FOYSON RESOURCES LIMITED

· Rotary Kiln (SL/RN process) · Shaft · Fluid Bed (FB) The treatability of Amazon Bay material by Direct Reduction should not be an issue and the titanium content plays no part in the reduction reactions involved. The reduction process would upgrade the magnetite feed from 52% Fe to nominally 70% Fe.

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SL/RN Process | Industrial Efficiency Technology & Measures

SL/RN Process. The so-called Stelco-Lurgi/Republic Steel-National Lead (SL/RN) process is a widely used coal-based DRI-making process which uses a rotary kiln. The process uses lump ore, pellets, beach sand or ilmenite ore and solid carbon to produce hot or cold DRI. The process operates at high temperature and atmospheric pressure.

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F ocus - Steelworld

2. Process Description: Sponge iron is produced using non-coking coal by the process of reduction of iron are in a rotary kiln. The reduction is carried out in a rotary kiln of a pre-determined temperature and controlled atmospheric pressure. The input raw material such as iron ore, non-coking coal (with high reactivity) and the fluxing materials

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NITROGEN IN SL/RN DIRECT REDUCED IRON: ORIGIN AND …

Jun 30, 2011· Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) is used as an alternative feedstock in electric arc furnaces, making up 50% or more of the total iron charge. DRI produced with coal based reductants (for example in rotary kilns) make up roughly 25% of DRI produced in the world. It was found that SL/RN DRI samples from a kiln cooler had high

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Nitrogen in SL/RN Direct Reduced Iron: Origin and Effect ...

with higher carbon content than that produced via the rotary kiln route. Since the SL/RN process is a solid-state reduction process, with solid carbon as reductant, little carbon dissolves in the sponge iron. The carbon content of DRI produced at the plant considered in this work is less than 0.15% C7, considerably lower than that of DRI produced

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Modelling and optimization of a rotary kiln direct ...

Modelling and optimization of a rotary kiln direct reduction process 55 Figure 3. Kiln temperature distribution for the base case The feed material (bed) enters the kiln at ambient temperature and rapidly heats up due to the hot gas in the freeboard.

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(PDF) Modeling of Rotary Kiln for Sponge Iron Processing ...

Download Full PDF Package. ... Steel, and Their Alloys ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal Direct Reduced Iron: Production. By mequanint zemene. Simulation of Rotary Cement Kilns Using a One-Dimensional Model ... 523-1 Designing of an Intelligent Fuzzy Logic System for Accretion Prevention in Sponge Iron SL/RN Rotary Kiln Based 100TPD Dri Process ...

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(PDF) Rotary Kilns | shoyab mohamed - Academia.edu

Download Free PDF. Rotary Kilns. Shoyab Mohamed. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 35 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. Rotary Kilns.

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Direct Reduction Process Description | HeatTreatConsortium.com

When the reducing gas is generated from hydrocarbons in the reduction zone of the furnace, it is typically a rotary kiln furnace that uses hydrocarbon fuels (primarily coal, but sometimes oil and natural gas) without prior gasification in the reduction chamber. Examples include the ACCAR and SL/RN processes. Glossary

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OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF SPONGE IRON PRODUCTION IN …

erection. The SL-RN process also uses rotary kiln for reducing iron ore. The plant, as shown in Fig. 2, essentially consists of raw material handling and preparation systems, rotary kiln with heat-ing arrangements for reduction of iron oxide, kiln for cooling the reduced material and the facilities for separating sponge iron from char

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ENVIRONMENTAL - ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT REDUCTION …

Experts represented all the major commercialized industrial direct reduction processes. For the industrial sector environmental reviews, UNEP has established a consultative ... The SL/RN Process at New Zealand Steel . 15 ... Rotary-Kiln Reactor of the ACCAR Process ; 30 Primary Flowsheet for the MIDREX EDR Process . 31

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STATE OF THE DIRECT REDUCTION AND REDUCTION …

State of direct reduction and reduction smelting processes J. Min. Met. 38 (3 ‡ 4) B (2002) 125 Table 1: Total world's DRI output in 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 (in %) [2] Figure 2. Total world's DRI output by processes in 2001 (in %) [2] 3. Direct Reduction Processes Direct reduction is defined as a process of producing solid iron product ...

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Innovative technologies for sustainable processing of iron ...

Direct reduction Smelting reduction SL/RN • Rotary-kiln based • Uses coal and lump ore • Small capacities • Emerging markets • Low Capex hurdle • Modular • Applicable for ilmenite Circored • CFB based • Uses hydrogen & ore fines • Medium capacities • Low CO2 emissions, main emission H2O • Only H2 based process ...

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Direct Reduction Technologies | SAIL

Jun 22, 2021· Midrex, HYL III process are of this type. HYL I process is of discontinous retort type. SL/RN and Krupp-Codir are of rotary kiln type . These processes use solid reducing agents and operate in continuous flow. Ores for direct reduction have to meet stringent specifications with high percentage of Fe and low content of tramp elements.

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SL/RN process - Outotec

The SL/RN process was developed in the early 1960s by Outotec in collaboration with three US companies. Benefits The process principles are the basis for numerous rotary kiln plants and still represent the dominant technology for the direct reduction of lump ore or pellets using coal.

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Direct Reduction - Iron and Steelmaking

The Reduction of Iron Ores, Scientific Basis and Technology. Ed. Spring-Verlag 1970,ISBN 3-540-05056-6, pp. 1-576. International Iron and Steel Institute. Present economics of direct reduction challenges the blast furnace route to steel. Volume II: Direct reduction processes with special emphasis on the melting of sponge iron.

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Direct and smelting reduction - Outotec

Design, engineering, delivery, and services for traditional SL/RN direct reduction plants based on a rotary kiln, with non-coking coal as the reductant and fuel. Design, engineering, delivery, and services for SL/ RN-Xtra plants, which use a combination of a pre-hardening grate and traditional SL/RN kiln for the treatment of iron ore fines.

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Direct Reduction of Iron Ore - PDF Free Download

Rotary Kiln Process The heart of this process is a cylindrical vessel, mounted horizontally and slightly elevated. As shown by the simplified SL/RN (Stelco-Lurgi-Republic Steel-National Lead) process flowsheet (Figure 3), ore and coal are charged into the vessel at one end.

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